Entameoba histolytica: disease caused, action EntAmoeba causes Amoebic dysEntery.
Action: histo (cell) lytic (burst), so it bursts cells
Clostridium difficile: disease caused "Difficult to be in a Closet with someone having explosive foul smelling diarrhea, because it would smell and there would be no air in there.
Clostridium Difficile causes explosive foul smelling diarrhea and is an anaeorbe (no air)
Pneumonia: acute pneumonia infiltrates from different causes "Pyrogenic=PMN, Miscellaneous=Mononuclear":
Acute pneumonia caused by Pyogenic bacteria: PMN infiltrate.
Acute pneumonia caused by Miscellaneous microbes: Mononuclear infiltrate.
Klebsiella details You tell the patient: "Get UPS you fat alcoholic":
Get up=nonmotile since no flagella.
Alcoholic=commonly seen in alcoholic and nosocomial patients.
Pseudomonas details · See diagram of patient.
Patient: bug commonly infects nosocomial.
Oxygen tank: oxidase positive.
IV bag: has glucose and lactose, so its OK to give because its a nonlactose fermenter.
Why giving oxygen? Because it commonly caused pneumonia.
IV in the arm: supposed to signify sepsis.
The foley: UTI.
Burn on his foot: can infect burns
Leprosy: early signs diagnostic criteria "LEProsy":
Loss of sensation in affected skin/ Loss of function (paralysis)
Enlargement of affected superficial nerves (tender too)
Positive identification of M. leprae under microscope
Kidney transplant virus "Borrowed Kidney":
BK virus is associated with kidney transplants.
Endotoxin features ENDOTOXIN:
Endothelial cells/ Edema
Negative (gram- bacteria)
X-tremely heat stable
Nitric oxide/ Neutrophil chemotaxis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis: culture identification "Rough, Tough, Buff":
Rough: colony isn't smooth but rough like breadcrumbs.
Tough: colony stuck to plate well, and tough to remove.
Buff: buff is a color, a cream/coffee shade.
Gram+: bacterial cell wall · Gram+ has:
+hick pepidoglycan layer.
+eichoic acid in wall
Listeria: motility Istanbul sounds like Listambul = list + tumble.
Listeria has tumbling motility.
Staphylococci: novobiocin test to distinguish coagulase negative staphylococciepidermidis stays away from the novobiocin disc like an epidemic.
· Therefore, epidermidis is sensitive to novobiocin.
Staph saprophyticus, much friendlier, comes up to the disc and says, "'sap?'" [short for "whassup?", ie "what's up"].
· Therefore, saprophyticus is novobiocin resistant.
Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis: classic presentation "Sore throat, Face bloat, Pi$$ coke":
Sore throat: 1 week ago
Face bloat: facial edema
Pi$$ coke: coke-coloured urine
· Alternatively, short version: "Throat, bloat and coke"
Streptococci: classification by hemolytic ability Gamma: Garbage (no hemolytic activity).
Alpha: Almost (almost lyse, but incomplete).
Beta: Best (complete lysis).
Streptococci: Quellung reaction: positive sign, Strep type confirmed "Quell-lung":
Quell: Capsules swell [+ve test].
Lung: S. pnuemonia [type confirmed].
· You get pneumonia in your lung.
E. coli: diseases caused in presence of virulence factors DUNG:
Gram negative sepsis
· Dung, since contract E. coli from dung-contaminated water.
Streptococcus pyrogenes: antibody SPAM:
Streptococcus Pyogenes: Antibody to M protein.
Staphylococcus aureus: diseases caused SOFT PAINS:
Toxic shock syndrome
Gram staining: mechanism "Murein gets the red out" [Allusion to an old eye-wash slogan]:
Peptidoglycan (aka murein) remains purple during Gram staining. The Gram negatives, devoid of murein, are red.
Thus, murein prevents redness and are purple (positive).
HIV infection: high-risk groups HIV:
IV drug abusers
Trichomaniasis: features · 5 F's:
Fishy odor (sometimes)
Flagyl (metronidazole) Rx
Nematodes: ones spreading by egg ingestion "ATE eggs":
spread by ingestion of eggs (vs skin invasion or insect bite)
Food poisoning: bugs inducing "Eating Contaminated Stuff Causes Very Big Smelly Vomit":
E. coli O157-H7 [undercooked meat, esp. hamburgers]
Clostridium botulinum [canned foods]
Salmonella [poultry, meat, eggs]
Vibrio parahaemolyticus [seafood]
Bacillus cereus [reheated rice]
Staphylococcus aureus [meats, mayo, custard]
Clostridium perfringens [reheated meat]
Vibrio vulnificus [seafood]
B19 virus: at-risk groups B19 affects 3 B's:
Babies (5th disease, infectiousum erythematosa)
Black Bleeders (sickle cell anemics - anaplastic anemic crisis)
Bearing Babies [pregnant women] (hydrops fetalis)
IgA protease-producing bacteria "Nice Strip of Ham":
Hemophilius: culture requirements Read Hemophilus as "HemoFive":
· Needs Heme with Factors Five and Ten.
DNA viruses: morphology rule of thumb DNA:
· Rule breakers: pox (cytoplasmic), parvo (single-stranded)
Streptococcus pyogenes: virulence factors SMASHED:
Gram positive stain Gram Positives
Stain Purple (violet-blue)
because of their thick Peptidoglycan layer
Common cold: viral causes "Common cold (acute infectious rhinitis, coryza) is PRIMArily caused by":
Streptococcus pyogenes: diseases caused NIPPLES:
Necrotising fasciitis and myositis
Erysipelas and cellulitis
Scarlet fever/ Streptococcal TSS
Picornavirus: features PICORNAvirus:
Neisseria: fermentation of N. gonorrhoeae vs. N. meningitidis Gonorrhoeae: Glucose fermenter only.
MeninGitidis: Maltose and Glucose fermenter.
· Maltose fermentation is a useful property to know, since it's the classic test to distinguish the Neisseria types.
RNA viruses: negative stranded "Orthodox Rhabbi's Party Around Fine Bunnies":
RNA viruses: positive stranded "Pico Called Flavio To Return Renzo's Corona":
Endocarditis: lab results suggesting it "High Tech Lab Results Point At Endocarditis":
Red blood cell casta
Endocarditis: causes of culture negative endocarditis "With Negative Tests, Investigators Should Focus Attention Somewhere Meaningful":
Timing (cultures drawn at end of chronic course)
obligate Intracellular organisms
Slow growing fastidious organisms
Antibiotic used previously
Subacute right-sided endocarditis
Endocarditis: indications for surgery PUS RIVER:
Prosthetic valve endocarditis (most cases)
Supporative local complications with conduction abnormalities
Resection of mycotic aneurysm
Ineffective antimicrobial therapy (eg Vs fungi)
Valvular damage (significant)
Embolization (repeated systemic)
Refractory congestive heart failure
Meningitis: risk factors "Can Induce Severe Attacks Of Head PAINS":
Infections (systemic, esp. respiratory)
Influenza infection: clinical manifestations "Having Flu Symptoms Can Make Moaning Children A Nightmare":
UTI-causing microorganisms KEEPS:
Enterococcus faecalis/ Enterobacter cloacae
Pseudomonas aeroginosa/ Proteus mirabilis
Staphylococcus saprophyticcus/ Serratia marcescens
Psedomonas aeruginosa: features AERUGINOSA:
UTIs, burns, injuries
Odor of grapes
Slime capsule sometimes (in CF pt)
Toxoplasma gondii: manifestations "My Cat Eats Mice":
Chorioretinits/ Congenital infection
Chlamydia: elementary vs. initial body location Elementary: Extracellular
RNA enveloped viruses FORT ABC, Puerto Rico:
Teratogens: placenta-crossing organisms ToRCHeS:
Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster (varicella), Hepatitis B,C,E
· Alternatively: TORCHES: with Others (parvo, listeria), add HIV to H's, Enteroviruses.
E. coli: major subtypes, key point of each "HIT by E. coli outbreak":
· HUS from Hamburgers
· Immune-mediated Inflammation
· Traveller's diarrhea
Obligate anaerobes: members worth knowing ABC:
Urease positive organisms PUNCH:
Proteus (leads to alkaline urine)
Ureaplasma (renal calculi)
Cryptoccocus (the fungus)
Vaccines: types STARK:
AIDS pathogens (T-cell suppression) worth knowing "The Major Pathogens Concerning Complete T-Cell Collapse":
M. avium intracellulare
Tetanus: treatment for infection SAD RAT:
Placenta-crossing organisms/ antenatal Infections STARCH:
Typhus: Epidemic Typhus: etiologic agent, vector ePidemic typhus:
Etiological agent: Rickettsia Prowazekii.
Vector: Pediculus corporis (human body louse).
· This is in contrast to Endemic typhus.
Capsulated bacteria "Some Bacteria Have An Effective Paste Surrounding Membrane Yielding Pseudo Fort, Bypassing Killing":
Anthrax (B. anthracis)
Menigitidis (N. Menigitidis)
Hepatitis: transmission routes "Vowels are bowels":
Hepatitis A and E transmitted by fecal-oral route.
Capsulated microbes "Some Nasty Killers Have Some Capsule Protection":
Pneumonia: causes: gram negative vs. gram positive Gram Negatives (eg coliforms) are responsible mainly for Nosocomial pneumonia.
Gram positives (eg strep pneumonia, staph) are thus more responsible for community acquired pneumonia.
Meningitis: most common organisms NHS:
·The cause of the most Severe meningitis is Streptococcus.
· Note: NHS is an acronym for National Health Service in several countries
Syphilis vs. H. ducreyi (chancroid): which ulcer is painful "In du-crey-i, you do cry
In H. ducreyi, the ulcer is painful, in syphilis the ulcer is painless.
Diphtheria toxin properties ABCDEF:
A/B-type toxin. Made by
Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which binds to
EF-2 (elongation factor 2).
RNA viruses: negative stranded "Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication":
· Note: Negative RNA viruses need there own polymerase.
Picorna viridae: members PEECoRnA (Picorna is pronounced 'pee-corna')
Streptococcus pneumoniae: diseases caused COMPS:
Catalase positive organims SPACE:
Staph (because it is painful)":